The Dilemma of Export.
Facing a deficit in the balance of payments, mainly because of the deficit in the balance of service, it is necessary more than ever that the new government really creates an export policy that focuses not only on selling more to foreign countries but also, in the context, on looking for new markets and on adding value to the exportable Brazilian products creating captive markets also through the use of own brands.
At the ambit of tributary policy it is made necessary that an exoneration of exports happens and be followed by junctural reforms that allow and foment the use of national raw material in exportable products. For instance, what happens today is that an exporter who buys raw material from a foreign country does not pay import custom taxes and other taxes over the imported raw materials; however, if the raw material is national all the taxes will fall upon it letting, clearly, the national product (raw material) in disadvantage and stimulating the importation what reduces the performance of the country in the balance of trade.
The credit question has also a great significance for a big conquest on export area. It is clear that more effective and significante credit lines need to be open to finance the exportation. There is not in the country real attention to that point. In Brazil, we see the available credit lines be divided, in most cases, between big enterprises like EMBRAER, which has once already consumed 90% of the available credit for financing exports. So a better distribution of the financing products (credits) for export will facilitate the improvement process in national export activities through the rise of opportunities engendered for new enterprises.
With the attention focused on the balance of trade, it is indispensable, however, to be careful when observing, as today in Brazil, a very expressive surplus in the balance of trade. The surplus we observe in Brazil does not mean that occurred a improvement in the competitive conditions of our exports, as the government (FHC´s government) wants to make us believe even if through a disguised way, but a significative reduction of imports mainly because of the conditionantes linked to the exchange rate which suffered a substantial devaluation in a short period of time. Today, for example, the surplus in the balance of trade is about 13 billion dollars, nevertheless, the exports grew only about 2% in relation with 2001 and the imports went down around 16%, what engenders the surplus.
Another question that must not be placed aside in the ambit of the increment of exports is the idea that the commercial policy needs to be transparent and have objective and verifiable goals and costs, which allow a constant examination of its efficiency and efficacy. The instruments, the focus and the objectives of the policy need to be expressed and courtable, while the institutional responsibilization of the involved activities needs to be clear for everyone, coherent and permit sanctions through some ways. It is needful to exist strategy, means and responsible.
In what concerns to international negotiations, it is seen that they will have a fundamental role in the construction and the success of any export promotion policy in the following years. Notwithstanding, Brazil’s bargain power in those negotiations is limited and so it is precise realism in terms of what is possible to obtain through this way.
It is convenient to express that the export promotion must not only aim at the trade of goods. There are opportunities to explore the service sector in which Brazil has a very incipient participation in the world exportations, around 1% only.
The regional diversification of exports seeking for new markets with big potential of exploration is also configured as one of the strategies to be adopted in the way to rise the income of selling to foreign countries. Asia blunts as a region of major unexplored potential, being hence an area that must have great attention in the way to firm agreements that focus on the development of the trade between the area and Brazil.
So, facing those problems, it is observed that a real exterior trade policy with the central point located at exonerating of exports followed by means that facilitate the access of the Brazilian products in exterior will make possible a leeway to the economic growth helped by exports. Exports acquires, thus, sense in the seek of the national development.
Ivan Tiago Machado Oliveira.
(Student of Economics at UFBA)
The text was written in December 2002.
Ivan Tiago Machado Oliveira
Enviado por Ivan Tiago Machado Oliveira em 21/10/2005
Reeditado em 21/10/2005
Código do texto: T61869